Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Abeer Children Dental Anxiety Scale (ACDAS)

Original Research

Contemp Pediatr Dent 2021:2(3):142-150


Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Abeer Children Dental Anxiety Scale (ACDAS)

OrcidAylin Aslan1✉, Orcid Tamer Tüzüner2, Orcid Özgül Baygın3, Orcid Nagehan Yılmaz4, Orcid Serpil Sagdıc5

Affiliations

1. Research Assistant, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey ( Correspondence: dtaylinaslan@gmail.com)

2.Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey

3. Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey

4. Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey

5. Research Assistant, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey


Highlights

Dental anxiety is a common problem that can lead to adverse conditions in dentists and patients.

Addressing childhood dental anxiety is a critical step in improving children’s oral health and dental experience. It is important to identify the anxious child as early as possible.

The Turkish version of the Abeer Children Dental Anxiety Scale (ACDAS) could be considered as a valid and reliable dental anxiety scale that helps us to identify and treat anxious children.


Abstract

Aim: This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Abeer Children Dental Anxiety Scale (ACDAS) as a tool used for the identification and treatment of anxious children. Methods: The study sample included 122 children aged ≥7 years, and the intervention consisted of implementation of the ACDAS and the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) by the lead researcher during the first dental visit for each child. ACDAS application was also repeated by another pediatric dentist in a smaller sub-sample of 20 children during the same visit. The lead researcher repeated the process, (i.e. application of ACDAS) in the whole study sample after two weeks. Results: The mean age of the participants was 9.84 ± 1.696 years (range: 7–12 years), and anxiety (ACDAS ≥ 26) was detected in 36.1% of the children. The Turkish version of the ACDAS exhibited high correlation with the CFSS-DS (r = 0.760; p < 0.001), and the Cronbach Alpha value (α = 0.934) showed good internal consistency. No statistically significant differences were observed in the dentist’s responses to questions in the Dental and Cognitive sections when comparing the first and second applications of the scale (p > 0.05), although significant differences were observed in the Child Evaluation section (p < 0.01). The Area Under the Curve (AUC), obtained by Receiver Operative Characteristic Curve (ROC) Analysis was 0.849 indicating good diagnostic performance. Conclusions: Based on these findings, the Turkish version of the ACDAS can be considered as a valid and reliable dental anxiety scale for the identification of children concerned about dental procedures.

Keywords: Dental Anxiety; Dental Care; Pediatric Dentistry


Copyright © 2021 Contemporary Pediatric Dentistry

References

1. Zinke A, Hannig C, Berth H. Psychological distress and anxiety compared amongst dental patients-results of a cross-sectional study in 1549 adults. BMC Oral Health 2019;19:27-32

2. Porritt J, Buchanan H, Hall M, Gilchrist F, Marshman Z. Assessing children’s dental anxiety: a systematic review of this measures. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2012;41:130‐142

3. Shindova MP, Blecheva AB ve Raycheva, JG. Dental fear of 6-12-year- old children-role of parents, gender and age. Folia Med 2019;61:444–450

4. Wu L, Gao X. Children’s dental fear and anxiety: Exploring family related factors. BMC Oral Health 2018;18:100-108

5. Oba AA, Dülgergil ÇT, Sönmez IŞ. Prevalence of dental anxiety in 7-to 11-year-old children and

its relationship to dental caries. Med Princ and Pract 2009;18:453-457

6. Ramos-Jorge J, Marques LS, Homem MA, Paiva SM, Ferreira MC, Ferreira FO, Ramos-Jorge ML. Degree of dental anxiety in children with and without toothache: prospective assessment. Int J Paediatr Dent 2013;23:125–130

7. Raj S, Agarwal M, Aradhya K, Konde S, Nagakishore V. Evaluation of dental fear in children during dental visit using children’s fear survey schedule-dental subscale. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6:12–15

8. Alshoraim MA, El‐Housseiny AA, Farsi NM, Felemban OM, Alamoudi NM, Alandejani AA. Effects of child characteristics and dental history on dental fear: cross‐sectional study. BMC Oral Health 2018;18:33-38

9. Seligman LD, Hovey JD, Chacon K, Ollendick TH. Dental anxiety: an understudied problem in youth. Clin Psychol Rev 2017;55:25-40

10. Wogelius P, Poulsen S, Sorensen HT. Prevalence of dental anxiety and behaviour management problems among six to eight years old Danish children. Acta Odontol Scand 2003;61:178–183

11. Klingberg G. Reliability and validity of the Swedish version of the Dental Subscale of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule, CFSS‐DS. Acta Odontol Scand 1994;52:255–256

12. Singh P, Pandey RK, Nagar A, Dutt K. Reliability and factor analysis of children’s fear survey schedule-dental subscale in Indian subjects. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2010;28: 151-155

13. Cademartori MG, Cara G, Pinto GDS, da Costa VPP. Validity of the Brazilian version of the Dental Subscale of Children’s Fear Survey Schedule. Int J Paediatr Dent 2019;29:736-747

14. Al-Namankany A, Ashley P, Petrie A. The development of a dental anxiety scale with a cognitive component for children and adolescents. Pediatr Dent 2012;34:219–224

15. Temel G, Erdogan S. Determining the sample size in agreement studies. Marmara Medical Journal 2017;30:101-112

16. Seydaoglu G, Dogan MC, Uguz S, Inanc BY, Diler RS. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of “dental subscale of the children’s fear survey schedule” and the frequency and risk

factors of dental fear in children.  J Ege Univ Fac Dent 2006;27: 31-38

17. Boman U, Lundgren J, Elfstrom M, Berggren U. Common use of fear survey schedule for assessment of dental fear among children and adults. Int J Paediatr Dent 2008;18:70-76

18. Seydaoğlu G, Doğan MC, Uguz S, Inanc BY, Çelik M. Corah dental anksiyete skalasının Türkçe uyarlamasının geçerlilik-güvenilirliği ve dental anksiyete görülme sıklığı. Ondokuz Mayis Üniv Dis Hekim Fak Derg 2006;7:7-14

19. Mafla AC, Villalobos FH,  Ramírez WMP, Yela DFL. Propiedades Psicométricas de la Versión Española de la Abeer Children DentalAnxiety Scale (ACDAS) para la Medición de Ansiedad Dental en Niños. Int J Odontostomat 2017;11:182-191

20. Wong G, Humpris GM, Lee GTR. Preliminary validation and reliability of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale. Psychol Rep 1998;83:1179-1186

21. Al-Namankany A, Ashley P, Petire A. Development of the first Arabic cognitive dental anxiety scale for children and young adults. World J Meta-Anal 2014;2:64-70

22. Rebok G, Riley A, Forrest C, Starfield B, Green B, Robertson J, Tambor E. Elementary school‐aged children’s reports of their health; a cognitive interviewing study. Qual Life Res 2001;10:59–70

23. Ten Berge M, Veerkamp JS, Hoogstraten J, Prins PJ. Childhood dental fear in the Netherlands: Prevalence and normative data. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2002;30:101-107

24. Holst A, Crossner CG. Direct rating of acceptance of dental treatment in Swedish children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1987;15:258–263

25. Vlad R, Pop AM, Olah P, Monea M. The evaluation of dental anxiety in primary school children: A cross-sectional study from Romania. Children 2020;7:158-162

26. Folayan MO, Idehen EE, Ojo OO. The modulating effect of culture on the expression of dental anxiety in children: a literature review. Int J Paediatr Dent 2004;14:241–245

27. Dahlander A, Soares F, Grindefjord M, Dahllöf G. Factors associated with dental fear and

anxiety in children aged 7 to 9 years. Dent J 2019;7:68-75

28. Dogan MC, Seydaoglu G, Uguz S, Inanc BY. The effect of age, gender and socio-economic factors on perceived dental anxiety determined by a modified scale in children. Oral Health Prev Dent 2006;4:235–242

Full Text


DOI

10.51463/cpd.2021.88


Views

20 views

Article Info

Received:

09 November 2021

Accepted:

13 December 2021

Online First:

18 December 2021